Which Intercostal Muscles Contract during Inspiration

Ventilation control is a complex interaction of several brain regions that signal that the muscles used in pulmonary ventilation are contracting (Table 2). The result is usually a rhythmic and uniform aeration rate that provides the body with sufficient amounts of oxygen while sufficiently removing carbon dioxide. Intercostal muscles are a group of muscles between the ribs that are responsible for forming and maintaining the cavity produced by the ribs. Muscles support expansion and contraction during breathing. The intercostal muscles in humans consist of 11 muscle trios. In addition to the neck muscles mentioned above, the following muscles that contribute to breathing have also been observed: Serratus anterior, Pectoralis major and Pectoralis minor, Trapezius, latissimus dorsi, Erector spinae, iliocostalis, quadratus lumborum, Serratus posterior superior, Serratus posterior inferior, Levatores costarum, transversus thoracis, subclavius (Kendall et al., 2005). The levator labii superioris alaeque nasi muscle lifts the sides of the nostrils. Sleep apnea is a chronic disease that can occur in children or adults and is characterized by the cessation of breathing during sleep. These episodes can last several seconds or several minutes and differ in the frequency with which they are experienced. Sleep apnea leads to poor sleep, which is reflected in symptoms of fatigue, evening naps, irritability, memory problems, and morning headaches. In addition, many people with sleep apnea have dry throats in the morning after waking up from sleep, which may be due to excessive snoring. Breathing usually occurs without thinking, although sometimes you can control it consciously, like.

B when swimming underwater, singing a song or blowing bubbles. Respiratory rate is the total number of breaths or breathing cycles that occur each minute. Respiratory rate can be an important indicator of a disease, as it can increase or decrease during an illness or in a medical condition. Respiratory rate is controlled by the respiratory center in the elongated marrow of the brain, which mainly reacts to changes in the levels of carbon dioxide, oxygen and pH in the blood. The chest wall includes muscles that act mainly during breathing. The most important of these muscles are the external intercostals, the internal intercostals, the posterior serratus, the thoracic traversus and the diaphragm. The intercostal muscles fill the spaces between the ribs (Figure 8). The outer intercostals are located above the luminaires and their fibers are aligned perpendicular to each other. The outer intercostals are the posterior of both and extend from the vertebrae to the cartilage of the ribs, while the inner intercostals extend from the corners on the ribs to the sternum. Then the breathing movements during heavy or laborious breathing are described. During deep breathing, the external intercostal muscles and diaphragm work as hard as possible, while a number of other muscles called accessory respiratory muscles help.

Accessory respiratory muscles that support the work of the external intercostal muscles include the scalene, sternocleidomastoid, levatores costarum, leectoral major and pectoral minor. These contract during inspiration to widen the ribs. The elevation of the ribs is also supported by the erector muscles of the spine, which bend the spine in the posterior direction. Accessory respiratory muscles that act during breathing include the internal intercostal and abdominal muscles. The effect of the abdominal muscles is much greater than that of the internal intercostal muscles. Not surprisingly, many animals that hunt rodents also have foldable chest cages to hunt their prey in confined spaces. These animals include cats, ferrets, and badgers, to name a few. In all these animals, the intercostal muscles must be more flexible and stretch further than in organisms such as humans who have a firm chest. Fig. 3.

Inner (posterior) surface of the sternum and chest showing the anatomical relationship between the internal intercostals, thoracis transversus, abdominis transverse and diaphragm. The lowest fibers of transversus thoracis are continuous with those of transversus abdominis. Respiratory muscles are also known as “respiratory pump muscles”, they form a complex arrangement in the form of semi-rigid bladder bellows around the lungs. Respiratory volume describes the amount of air in a given space in the lungs or that can be moved by the lungs, and depends on a variety of factors. Current volume refers to the amount of air that enters the lungs during calm breathing, while inspiratory reserve volume is the amount of air that enters the lungs when a person inhales beyond the current volume. The expiratory reserve volume is the additional amount of air that can be left after the tides with a vigorous drain. The residual volume is the amount of air that remains in the lungs after the expiratory reserve volume has been expelled. Respiratory capacity is the combination of two or more volumes. Anatomical dead space refers to the air inside respiratory structures that never participates in gas exchange because it does not reach the functional alveoli. .